It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets
than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily
and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit
to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy
just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane
gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets
- spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy. TL;DR?
Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started. 1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong
binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third
outcome. If you hedged against the possibility
of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows: Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically
. In wallstreetbets
terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets? 2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise
! - the rate gets better
after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many
different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super
boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick
for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable
to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts. (3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA
. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated
legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps
. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money
. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt
. They're synthetic
because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more
profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in
instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that
exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling
CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying
CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can
take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly
taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
This software submitted by
is one of the best ways to find recurring market cycles and trends which have proven to be very profitable over the last two decades. Once you’ve purchased and installed this software on the computer, it will start scanning futures, forex markets or stock markets to find profitable patterns or trends. This will save you a lot of time, and help you earn more money. What is Infinity Scalper?
Infinity Scalper is the ultimate forex trading tool with the premium features and advanced trading technology for every kind of forex traders. It is the smartest, powerful and most accurate forex trading tools that give a serious edge. This program is developed to bring more ease and simplicity to your trading life. This advanced trading technology will make it easier and faster. It does not require any forex market again or calculate because the indicator will do all the work for you. This program will work on M1 and M2 timeframes with pure profits. Whether you are busy with other activities and don’t have much time to watch the market and wait for the new trading chance, this Infinity Scalper will easily alert of the new signal. You can enjoy your free time with family, friend, and your beloved ones. How Does Infinity Scalper Works? Infinity Scalper
is the easy-forex tool with the mind-blowing features. This program has the unique signal alert system which sends the push notification to your mobile and an email alert to your inbox whenever the new signal comes up. This program also provides you on-screen pop-up alert. With this alert, you will be notified of each new BUY or SELL signal and Stoploss values and TakeProfit. The on-screen signals of this Infinity Scalper are easy to understand. You can simply BUY when the indicator shows the green bar, and sell when the indicator shows the red bar. It is the comprehensive user guide has been written to allow you navigate through this Infinity Scalper. This program will provide you the useful tips that help you to make more profits of every trade with the power indicator tool. It has the special and seamless mode of operation.
It will guarantee convenience and more comfort. This software will work on all the forex pairs. This is the smart trading formula that the collation of the recent trading technologies. It is the built-in first-grade alerts and notification system that provides you timely updates as signals drop in. This program will be notified of each new trading opportunity. This program does all the analysis and calculation that you could ever need to do it. This trading software will allow you to eliminate every human-induced errors and maximizes your profit. You can easily concentrate on most of the things in your life. You can easily make more profits. You never have to bother about missing signal. It is the smartest trading algorithms which have been proven to deliver outstanding results. Infinity Scalper
is an ultimate forex trading tool which contains most advanced features with the latest technology that suits for all kind of forex traders to make huge profits in short period of time. With this new Infinity Scalper, you can get notifications of BUY or SELL signals to make the profit or stop losing your investment by setting up the deals and get complete benefit of profits. With this trading system, you can generate a lot of profitable and fast signals every day that anybody can use to make money effectively. It is specially designed to make your trading life easier and simpler. It will work effectively for all forex pairs and on M1 & M5 timeframes to get original as well as accurate signals. This advanced trading technology enables smarter, faster processing to analyze the forex market condition automatically behalf of you to get the desired result. DOWNLOAD INFINITY SCALPER FROM GOOGLE DRIVE Why Infinity Scalper Is Exactly What You Need? Infinity Scalper
was developed using the latest trading technology. It is a very smart tool. And it has been equipped with a superior logic that is used by forex trading professionals. Infinity Scalper is embedded with an automatic signal and alert system.
Infinity Scalper has a functional trend analysis mechanism that keeps working every second to make sure that you get only the most accurate and profitable signals.
Infinity Scalper indicator has a built-in smart prediction technology which allows it to know where the price is going to go in the next seconds, minutes or even hours. Infinity Scalper Pattern Recognizer
–This indicator lights up your Forex charts! It Recognizes all known candlestick patterns. This indicator signals can be sent to your email, custom settings, filter by the trend, reliability and it is developed for MetaTrader 4. Infinity Scalper PDF Infinity Scalper Tactics
–This 28-page ebook covers all you need to know about Infinity Scalper patterns to trade them profitably. Infinity Scalper indicator is telling you what the market is doing right now. When used in conjunction with standard technical indicators, you get an ultimate trading system. It has three powerful trading strategies easy to use, step by step screenshots showing you when to enter and exit the market. Divergence Pattern Recognizer
– This indicator automatically recognizes divergence patterns and draws the blue and red lines. It recognizes and picks only reliable divergence patterns, Signals can be sent to your email. It gives you custom settings, hidden divergences, filtering the more reliable “regular” and “deep” divergences. Developed for MetaTrader 4. Infinity Scalper PDF VISIT INFINITY SCALPER OFFICIAL WEBSITE NOW!!! Divergence Master Trader
– When a divergence pattern forms, look for the opposite direction and never stay with the trend as the crowd does. This 17-page ebook will teach you how to recognize divergence patterns and catch the big moves. Using the Divergence Pattern Recognizer for maximum profit, profit on both small corrections and full trend reversals. Find the best entry point. Forex Tools & Tips Subscription
–You will receive only quality information, special indicators, ebooks and more tips for free! Trading the news with candlesticks. It has best pivot point indicator and has EA to enter positions on Support / Resistance. Infinity Scalper Guide
Plus, Infinity Scalper never repaints, and you get a complete hands-on support and guidance for a life-time. All of these are ways to make it a whole lot easier for you to use.
PDF Welcome to our blog on forex trading for beginners, written for individuals who desire to explore the currency markets and develop a secondary... Find, read and cite all the research you ... <iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WRV2FK" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden"></iframe> <!-- End Google Tag Manager --> <!-- Forex Lines 7 Trading System. EA Forex Lines – is unique trading robot (Expert Advisor) that monitors the market situation 24 hours/day and makes profitable trades for you. Just keep your Metatrader4 on all the time even if you are away or a sleep. This EA is designed to open one position only. Long or short. In the package you will find following files: ForexLines7.exe ( install it on your ... We have summarized and converted our Top 10 Best Forex Trading Strategies into PDF format due to numerous request. Now you can learn how to apply these top trading strategies directly from your desktop or laptop. The Top strategies of our pick, are The LondonDay Break Strategy The 1 Minute Scalping Strategy Price Action Trend Strategy Stretch ... Test a lot with trend line support and resistance and channel designing (see below for channels). These are one of the most important tools you will ever use so it is very crucial to know how to use them correctly. FOREX CHANNEL LINES One of the most important elements of trendline resistance is channels. Channels are two parallel lines that restrict price action. In order to draw a channel ... macro situation well, you may not need many technical analysis tools. This book will give guidance step by step on how to set up trend lines and how to react when it breaks the trend line. There is no long and boring explanation, and no need special skill to understand it. You only need basic understanding of opening, closing, highest and lowest price in candle stick bar or any other chart bar. Top 10 Best Forex Trading Strategies PDF Report If you’re in the pursuit of nding the Best Forex trading Strategy and the keys to choosing a strategy that rst ts your own personality than this post is going to reveal the top 10 best Forex trading strategies that work. The best way to consistently make pro ts in the Forex market it completely and totally depends on you, the trader ... Trend lines are practical tools for tracking and trading trends. It makes sense to form trading strategies with this simple but useful tool. Many traders who seem to trade with a blank chart have in fact internalised the art of trend line drawing. They can visualise the trend lines with actually drawing them. Trend lines track trends. Here the trend which was started from feb lows is only confirmed as late as last week when three points fall on the same line.(trend 2) . So can’t say from feb that this is the trend to follow. So how to trade from Feb To september. I have drawn a trend 1 which the chart is respecting for a long time and then suddenly it goes away from it. Http Forex/pdf/pro2.pdf VantagePoint 7.0 PDF Ebook 0.60 MB PDF Book Pages: - analysis using neural network technol - ogy to analyze multiple related mar - kets to look. Pdf Foreign Exchange As The Trader's Alternative PDF Ebook 0.13 MB PDF Book Pages: - Trading opportunities in the forex market deserve. Serious consideration as a. Investors all over the globe trading forex on a daily basis.
The ONLY Forex Trading Video You Will EVER NeedTHIS QUICK TEST WILL HELP YOU BECOME FINANCIALLY FREETake it HERE: https://discover.tiersoffreedom.comTo join my ... NEW COURSE: https://chartguys.com/courses/entries-exits/ Introduction to Trend Lines Technical Analysis Basics Technical Analysis for Beginners Introduction ... In this video we show you the BEST trend line trading strategy that NO ONE talks about. Trend lines and combining them with price action as part of your trad... 👉👉👉 Check Out My Trading Club - http://b.link/tac-5mvtop Looking for powerful, proven over the years and FREE forex trading strategy? You just found it! Pr... How to Draw Trend Lines Correctly. http://www.financial-spread-betting.com/course/trendlines.html PLEASE LIKE AND SHARE THIS VIDEO SO WE CAN DO MORE! How to ... how to draw trend lines best forex trading strategy Welcome Friends to 's Biggest Technical Analysis Youtube Channel Our Dream is to make you an Expert in Tr... Five trading tips and techniques to identify trends. SUBSCRIBE: https://bit.ly/2MsGjRR If you want more actionable trading tips and strategies, go to https:/... If you really like my videos and find them helpful you are welcome to support my effort - https://www.patreon.com/join/JannaFX Forex trading for beginners, p... When trading you have to realize that the way you draw a trend line is important and can't be something simple as just connecting some dots. If you base your... HOW TO PROPERLY DRAW A TREND LINE IN YOUR TRADING **FOREX-STOCKS-CRYPTOCURRENCY**What Broker Do I recommend? https://bit.ly/2QCWYTDDisclaimerOur content is inte...